Jenna Ladd | November 1, 2016
Some two billion children worldwide are breathing air that contains pollutants which exceed the minimum air quality standards set by the World Health Organization (WHO), according to a recent report from UNICEF.
The first of its kind, the study used satellite imagery in order to determine areas that contain the highest concentrations of air pollutants. It revealed that roughly 300 million children live in places “where outdoor air pollution exceeds international guidelines by at least six times.” While 92 percent of the world’s total population breathes air containing dangerous levels of pollutants, experts say that children are especially vulnerable. The report stated that children breathe about twice as quickly as adults, which means they can inhale more air relative to their body weight. Their lungs are also still developing and may be more prone to infection. Air pollution accounts for 1 in 10 deaths of children under the age of five, and takes the lives of about 600,000 children of the same age range annually.
UNICEF Executive Director Anthony Lake said in a statement, “Pollutants don’t only harm children’s developing lungs — they can actually cross the blood-brain barrier and permanently damage their developing brains — and, thus, their futures. No society can afford to ignore air pollution.” The report elaborated upon the social and economic implications of breathing highly polluted air. It read,
“The combination of respiratory, cardiovascular, cognitive, morbidity and reproductive health effects of air pollution have biological as well as social and economic effects that last a lifetime. These include health conditions, school attendance, school performance, health costs and productivity, which affect income, poverty and inequalities. Air pollution, through its massive and cumulative impact on the overall health and well-being of children and parents, can perpetuate intergenerational cycles of inequality.”
Experts say the issue is exacerbated by industrialization, with the majority of outdoor air pollution attributable to vehicle emissions, heavy use of fossil fuels, burning of waste, and dust. In a statement, UNICEF asked countries attending the 2016 United Nations Climate Change Conference to tackle issues related to air quality for children directly. The report said, “Unless action is taken to control outdoor air pollution, studies show that outdoor air pollution will become the leading cause of environment-related child death by 2050.”