Interactive tool to predict future days above 100 degrees


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With a new web-based platform, users can see hot day projections for many U.S. cities and towns. (Climate Central)
Jenna Ladd| August 18, 2017

By now it’s common knowledge that as greenhouse gases continue to accumulate in our atmosphere, intensely high temperatures are likely to occur more frequently.

But Climate Central, a climate research and news organization, has developed a way for residents of the continental U.S. to see exactly how much their communities will be affected. The interactive tool allows users to type in the name of their city or town and view the average number of days that will exceed specific temperature thresholds in 2050, 2075 and 2100.

The analysis includes data for nearly 30,000 cities and towns of various sizes from across the continental U.S. Each graph provides two possible outcomes: one in which greenhouse gas emissions continue as usual and one in which they are moderately curtailed.

Researchers based their projections on aggregated data from 21 global climate models.

At present, Des Moines experiences an average of zero days per year when the actual temperature is above 100 degrees Fahrenheit. According to this study, the city will likely see 15 days annually that exceed the temperature threshold in 2050 and up to 30 per year in 2100.

This year is on track to be the hottest year ever, followed by 2016, 2015, and 2014, respectively.

Lyme disease more common due to climate change


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Deer ticks thrive in hot and humid forested areas. (flickr/Joslyn Gallant)
Jenna Ladd| August 17, 2017

As temperatures and humidity rise in the United States, conditions are becoming more favorable for disease-carrying deer ticks.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reports that climate change has expanded the geographical range of ticks. Deer ticks specifically are most active when temperatures are above 45 degrees Fahrenheit and humidity is at least 85 percent. As temperatures and humidity rise in many parts of North America, so too are tick populations. The EPA reports that the incidence of Lyme disease in the U.S. has doubled since 1991.

The Northeastern U.S. has experienced the sharpest increase Lyme disease transmission. This part of the country is becoming more humid, making conditions better for ticks to emerge from the ground and latch onto hosts. New Hampshire, Maine, and Vermont have seen the largest spike in Lyme disease incidence since 1991, followed closely by Delaware and Massachusetts. On average, the EPA reports, these states now see 50 to 100 more cases per 100,000 people than they did in 1991.

In the future, deer tick populations are expected to double in the U.S. and become up to five times more numerous in Canada.

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Incidence of Lyme disease per 100,000 people. (EPA)

On The Radio – Linn County joins national coalition committed to Paris Climate Agreement


Cedar Rapids is one of four major cities in Iowa that has pledged its support of the Paris Climate Agreement. (National Academy of Science, Engineering, and Medicine)

This week’s On The Radio discusses how Linn County supervisors voted unanimously to join the We Are Still In coalition.

Jenna Ladd| August 14, 2017

Transcript: Linn County recently pledged its support for the Paris Climate Accord.

This is the Iowa Environmental Focus.

Despite President Trump’s plan to withdraw from the international climate agreement, more than 1,200 mayors, governors, college and university leaders, businesses, and investors have formed a coalition committed to combating climate change. The group is called the We Are Still In Coalition and makes up more than $6 trillion of the U.S. economy.

The Linn County Board of Supervisors voted unanimously last month to join Iowa City, Johnson County, Des Moines and Fairfield in their effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 28 percent by 2025. Grinnell College, Iowa State University, Coe College and the University of Iowa are all members of the coalition.

Following the board’s vote, local officials, environmental experts and businesses including PepsiCo’s Quaker Oats of Cedar Rapids discussed plans for continued climate action.

For more information visit iowa-environmental-focus-dot-org. From the UI Center for Global and Regional Environmental Research, I’m Betsy Stone.

New study assesses flood risks for schools nationwide


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The impact of flooding on schools is often compounded by aging infrastructure, according to a recent study. (FEMA)
Jenna Ladd| August 8, 2017

A recent study by the Pew Charitable Trusts generated flood risk scores for 84,123 primary and secondary schools nationwide.

The report’s authors pointed out that flooding is the most costly and common natural disaster, affecting every region of the U.S. Many times, severe floods badly damage schools, causing them to close. For example, the study points out, floods in West Virginia in June 2016 cost $130 million in damage to regional schools.

Researchers used three metrics to generate county-wide composite flood risk vulnerability scores for schools in all fifty states including: a school’s location within a designated flood zone, the percentage of a school’s neighborhood (as represented by ZIP code) located within a flood zone, and the number of historical flood-related federal disaster declarations in that county.

Among the study’s major findings are that flood risk is distributed across diverse regions of the country. Schools with the highest flood risk scores were located in the Atlantic Coast, Gulf Coast, Mississippi River corridor, and southwestern Arizona. Similarly, those schools with the highest composite flood risk scores were located in both coastal and inland regions. Those 100 counties with the highest composite flood risk scores include 6,444 schools that serve almost 4 million students.

The study made some recommendations for steps policymakers can take to increase flood resiliency for schools. They included generating up-to-date local flood maps, developing pre-disaster flood plans for schools, working to leverage federal assistance, and relocating schools out of floodplains if possible.

The Pew Charitable Trusts full analysis can be found here.

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The highest flood risk areas are scattered across many regions of the country. (Pew Charitable Trusts)

On The Radio – Kent Park Lake sees improvements


Iowa DNR officials hope to remove the lake from the Impaired Waters List. (Iowa Water Science Center)

This week’s On The Radio segment provides details about restoration and improvement projects at Kent Park Lake in Johnson County.

Jenna Ladd | August 7, 2017

Transcript: The Iowa Department of Natural Resources is on track with its plans to improve water quality and recreational opportunities at Kent Park Lake in Johnson County.

This is the Iowa Environmental Focus.

In partnership with the Johnson County Conservation Board and Stanley Consultants, Iowa DNR plans to wrap up the first phase of park improvements this fall, which included restoring and constructing catch basins, adding ADA complaint facilities and installing bio-retention cells to keep storm water run-off from entering the lake.

Kent Park Lake was drained this spring in preparation for lake restoration projects. In the second phase, DNR plans to remove sediments from the lake basin, reshape parts of the bank and lake basin and add fish habitat. According to a press release from the department, the project’s aim is to remove the lake from the Iowa DNR Impaired Waters List and to provide more recreational activities for park visitors.

Project officials held a public meeting last month at Kent Park to discuss the preliminary plans for phase two with local residents.

For more information about the project, visit iowa-environmental-focus-dot-org.

From the UI Center for Global and Regional Environmental Research, I’m Betsy Stone.

Climate change likely to cause surge in nutrient runoff


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A small portion of a hypoxic dead zone in the Chesapeake Bay. (Chesapeake Bay Program)
Jenna Ladd| August 4, 2017

A recent study found that increased precipitation due to climate change will lead to markedly increased nutrient runoff.

Nitrogen rich fertilizers are widely used by U.S. farmers. Many times, more fertilizer than crops can use are applied to the land and the excess runs off into local waterways, eventually draining into the ocean. Excessive nutrient enrichment, also known as eutrophication, decreases available oxygen in the water and kills off aquatic species, resulting in “dead zones.”

Warmer temperatures associated with climate change are expected to continue producing heavier rainfall, thereby increasing nutrient runoff by up to twenty percent by 2100. Anna Michalak, a professor of global ecology at the Carnegie Institution for Science at Stanford and one of the authors of the study, told the New York Times, “When we think about climate change, we are used to thinking about water quantity — drought, flooding, extreme rainfall and things along those lines. Climate change is just as tightly linked to issues related to water quality, and it’s not enough for the water to just be there, it has to be sustainable.”

Researchers concluded that the Upper Mississippi Atchafalaya River Basin, the Northeast and the Great Lakes basin are likely to see the largest increases in nutrient runoff because these areas of the country are already creating hypoxic dead zones. Climate change will likely compound these effects.

While the study focused on the continental U.S., the researchers did apply their model to parts of the world most similar to it. They found that large areas of East, South and Southeast Asia will likely see nutrient runoff surges similar to those in the U.S. Given that some people in these regions depend on surface water to survive, the impacts of nutrient pollution there may be especially lethal.

Nitrate in Iowa: Episode two


Jenna Ladd| August 3, 2017

In the second episode of Nitrate in Iowa, Iowa Environmental Focus’ mini-video series about nutrient pollution in the Hawkeye state, we consider two perspectives on this issue. First we speak with Iowa State Senator and century farmer, Kevin Kinney of Oxford, Iowa. Kinney argues that while agriculture plays a role in nutrient pollution, so do point sources in urban areas. Next, we hear from former University of Iowa professor of Environmental and Occupational health and founder of the Iowa Policy Project, David Osterberg. Osterberg points out that the research on nutrient pollution overwhelmingly points to agricultural runoff as the primary contributor.

Both agree that in order to improve water quality in the state, some compromises must be made.

The first episode of Nitrate in Iowa features Dr. Chris Jones of IIHR-Hydroscience and Engineering providing a basic overview of nitrate science, it can be found here. A full-length discussion about the effects nitrate in drinking water have on human health is provided in this episode of EnvIowa, our new podcast.