Iowa Department of Agriculture provides funding for urban water quality projects


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Clive, Iowa is one of the cities that has received funding from the state to implement a water quality improvement demonstration project. (Kim/flickr)
Jenna Ladd | March 14, 2017

The Iowa Department of Agriculture’s Iowa Water Quality Initiative awarded grants for 12 new urban water quality demonstration projects.

The funds, totaling $820,840, will be met with $1.18 million dollars in matching funds and other in-kind donations. Gov. Terry Brandstand founded the Iowa Water Quality Initiative in 2013. Since then, 45 water quality demonstration sites have been established in addition to this year’s twelve new urban sites.

Gov. Brandstand said, “We know this is a long-term problem that we need to address, and by having a growing source of funding, we think we can speed up the progress that’s being made.”

The water quality demonstration projects will include improved stormwater management, permeable pavement systems, native seeding, lake restoration, and the installation of bioretention cells, among other measures. The cities selected include: Slater, Windsor Heights, Readlyn, Urbandale, Clive, Des Moines, Emmetsburg, Denison, Spencer, Cedar Rapids, Burlington, Waterloo and Ankeny. Upwards of 150 organizations from participating cities have also contributed funds to support the projects. In the last year, $340 million dollars have been spent to improve water quality in Iowa, including both state and federal money.

Meanwhile, a bi-partisan water quality improvement bill is making its way through the Iowa legislature. The plan, called “Water, Infrastructure, Soil for our Economy,” proposes a sales tax increase of three-eighths of a percent over the next three years while also “zeroing out the lowest [income] tax bracket” to offset the sales tax increase. The bill would finally provide funding for the Iowa Natural Resources and Outdoor Recreation Fund, which was supported overwhelmingly by Iowa voters in 2010.

Representative Bobby Kaufmann is a Republican supporter of the bill. Kaufman said, “This is a sensible, balanced approach to finally combat Iowa’s pervasive water quality issues while not raising the overall tax pie for Iowans.” A minimum of 60 percent of the trust fund dollars would support proven water quality measures as provided by Iowa’s Nutrient Reduction Strategy.

Kaufmann said, “The need is there. The desire to fix water quality exists. This provides the funding to get the job done.”

 

Report provides inventory of water monitoring efforts in Iowa


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Constructing wetlands is a proven practice that helps to reduce nutrient runoff from agricultural land. (USDA/flickr)
Jenna Ladd | December 23, 2016

A 2016 report from the Iowa Department of Natural Resources in partnership with the Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship summarizes Iowa’s water quality monitoring efforts.

The report, which was also supported by Iowa State University and the University of Iowa IIHR—Hydroscience and Engineering Center, provides a complete list of all nutrient-specific water monitoring sites in the state. The first of its kind, it was developed to inform the Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy. The Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy aims to monitor and reduce nutrients delivered to Iowa waterways and subsequently to the Gulf of Mexico by 45 percent.

Iowa Secretary of Agriculture Bill Northey said,

“Iowa has a comprehensive water quality monitoring effort in place that is supported by a variety of partners. Monitoring results were central to identifying the practices highlighted in the Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy and have provided valuable information as we have established priority watersheds. It continues to be an important part of our efforts as we work to increase the pace and scale of practice adoption needed to improve water quality.”

The report outlined all water monitoring efforts according their type and scale:

  • Edge-of-field monitoring
    • Researchers partner with farmers to monitor water quality on the edge of farm fields in order to accurately prioritize nutrient reduction practices.
  • Paired watershed monitoring
    • These are sites wherein the effectiveness of conservation practices are tested on two similar watersheds, one watershed receives intentional conservation measures and the other does not.
  • Large watershed monitoring (950,000 total acres)
    • These sites are either part of University of Iowa’s IIHR – Hydroscience and Engineering management of 45 real-time management stations or Iowa DNR’s 60 statewide sites.
  • Small watershed monitoring (22,500 total acres)
    • Several small watershed monitoring projects are ongoing including 18 established by the Iowa Water Quality Initiative. Many of these projects measure the effectiveness of conservation practices implemented by farmers.

The report also detailed the many challenges associated with nutrient-specific water quality monitoring. Complicating factors can include frequently changing land-use, varying streamflow and precipitation, and a lack of long-term monitoring records.

Iowa DNR director Chuck Gipp said, “While challenges exist, we believe continued nutrient monitoring is critical to understanding what Iowa can do to be successful.” He added, “All partners involved in developing this report know the value of long-term evaluation and are committed to continuing with a science-based approach to nutrient reduction in Iowa waters.”

Researchers call for EPA enforcement of nutrient-reduction plans


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The hypoxic dead zone in the Gulf of Mexico has not decreased in size since Iowa’s Nutrient Reduction Plan was established in 2013. (NOAA)
Jenna Ladd | November 18, 2016

A November report by the Iowa Policy Project evaluates the state’s nutrient reduction progress since its Nutrient Reduction Plan (NRS) was released in 2013.

The report states that despite Iowa’s voluntary nutrient reduction plan, recent data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and United States Geological Survey (USGS) indicates that the size of the hypoxic “dead zone” in the Gulf of Mexico has shown no improvement. Iowa Policy Project, an Iowa City-based research group, also posits that the latest annual report from NRS overstates progress that has been made in the state. The NRS report notes that some producers have implemented conservation land-use practices such as cover crops and buffer zones, but doesn’t emphasize that others have failed to maintain or eliminated conservation areas. Among other criticisms, IPP points out that while the Iowa acres in cover crop did increase by 125,000 acres from 2014 to 2015, these improvements must be considered in context. There are a total of 400,000 acres currently in cover crop, but this only represents less than 2 percent of Iowa’s 24 million acres of row crop land.

Many of the conservation efforts are voluntary for farmers in Iowa. IPP reports that more than 40 percent of farmers spent less than $500 a year in conservation practices in the ten year period prior to a 2014 Farm and Rural Life Poll by Iowa State University. Another report released by the Mississippi River Collaborative in November said that the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has failed to establish “enforceable regulations, specific deadlines or funding” to help Iowa and other agricultural states mitigate their nutrient pollution. Kris Sigford, water quality director at the Minnesota Center for Environmental Advocacy and member of the Mississippi River Collaborative said, “The results of the EPA’s hands-off approach with the Mississippi River basin states are massive algae blooms and nitrate contamination that make our drinking water unsafe and render lakes and rivers unfit for recreation.” EPA responded with a statement on Thursday  stating that the agency has “called upon states and stakeholders to intensify their efforts” to address the issue, one of America’s “most widespread and costly environmental and public health challenges.” They added, however, that they “cannot solve nutrient pollution by top-down federal action.”

EPA’s comments follow a record-breaking summer of Iowa beach closures due to toxic algae blooms. The Mississippi River Collaborative, which has sued EPA for its lack of enforcement, and other environmental groups call the federal agency to set limits on nutrient pollution for states, improve nutrient assessment and water-quality monitoring for Iowa’s waterways and to clearly establish goals and funding for nutrient-reduction initiatives. The collaborative also supports a sales tax increase of three-eighths of one cent to fund water quality projects through the Natural Resources and Outdoor Recreation Trust Fund. Susan Heathcote, the Iowa Environmental Council’s water program director, points out that if the sales tax revenue is established, “we need to pair that with good accountability measures so we can tell the taxpayers that these dollars are being invested wisely — that we have a plan.”

EnvIowa Podcast: Soybean crops found to contribute to nitrate levels in Iowa’s waterways


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Jenna Ladd | November 4, 2016

On episode three of EnvIowa, we sit down with Dr. Chris Jones, IIHR Research Engineer, to discuss his recent research, which looks at the effects of soybean crops on water quality in Iowa. Much of the research over the last 40 years has been focused on corn, given that corn plants require more fertilizer than soybean plants. However, studies in 2009 and 2016, both of which Dr. Jones co-authored, suggest that soybeans play a larger role than previously understood.

Dr. Jones helps us understand why nutrient pollution has increased steadily as more and more farmers have integrated soybeans into crop rotation, replacing smaller grains and cover-crops, and what it will take to turn this science into water quality policies that benefit Iowans.

The EnvIowa podcast can also be found on iTunes and soundclound. For a complete archive of past episodes, click on the EnvIowa Podcast tab at the top of this page.

On the Radio: Governor proposes plan to reduce dead zone


Governor Terry Branstad. Photo by Gage Skidmore, Flickr.
Governor Terry Branstad. Photo by Gage Skidmore, Flickr.

Listen to this week’s radio segment here or read the transcript below. This week’s segment discusses a proposal by Governor Terry Branstad to reduce Iowa’s nutrient runoff.

Governor Terry Branstad has released a 200-page proposal to reduce Iowa’s impact on the Gulf of Mexico’s dead zone.

This is the Iowa Environmental Focus.

Continue reading

Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy comment period extended


Photo by cwwycoff1, Flickr.
Photo by cwwycoff1, Flickr.

The comment period for the Iowa Nutrient Reduction Strategy has been extended from Jan. 4 to Jan. 18th.

The Nutrient Reduction Strategy is a plan for how Iowa can reduce nutrient pollution in the state’s waterways.

This plan calls for wastewater treatment and industrial plants to make upgrades that will reduce their pollution. Additionally, the plan calls on farmers to voluntarily reduce their nutrient runoff.

Some environmental groups worried that the initial 45-day comment period was too short.

Comments can be made here.

Public meetings for nutrient reduction plan


Mississippi River. Photo by christopherbarnette, Flickr.
Mississippi River. Photo by christopherbarnette, Flickr.

As we’ve posted about over the past few weeks (1,2), a plan to reduce Iowa’s waterway nutrient pollution is under review.

The public can attend three upcoming meeting to learn more about the plan. The first meeting is on the 17th in Denison, the second one is on the 19th at Iowa State University and the last one is on the 21st in Waterloo.

The plan looks to limit nutrient pollution primarily by making wastewater treatment and industrial plants get upgrades that will reduce their pollution. Farming accounts for the majority of nutrient pollution, and the plan calls for farmers to voluntarily reduce their nutrient runoff.

Nitrogen and phosphorous that gets into the waterways can travel down the Mississippi River and contribute to the Gulf of Mexico’s dead zone. The dead zone is an area that’s unlivable for most marine life due to its low oxygen levels. This occurs because the nutrient pollution increases algae activity in the gulf. The algae then consume oxygen in the gulf leaving low levels for other marine life.

Read more about the meetings here.